This "nonstickiness" and non-fortitude explain why Germany got as far as it did, and maybe why Bosnia is the way it is now. When in the priests tried to hold a procession through the streets, they were beaten and their relics and banners were desecrated.
These religious divisions created a complex confessional pattern in Germany. Hitler-- one person-- was able to unite a whole country and came very close to accomplishing his goal. The world powers are still prone to short term fixes, leaving volatile situations unsolved and unstable, possible flash points that could once again explode into violence, pulling the world into yet another conflict.
The Union members were convinced of the existence of a Catholic conspiracy aimed at rooting out all traces of Protestantism from the empire. Yet another to be learned from history. After the successful struggle to retain Cologne, however, Catholic princes began to enforce the cuius regio principle with rigour.
They declared that they would no longer become involved in the territorial wrangles of individual members, and they resolved to prolong their association for only three years more. The ancient notion of a Roman Catholic empire of Europe, headed spiritually by a pope and temporally by an emperor, was permanently abandoned, and the essential structure of modern Europe as a community of sovereign states was established.
Meanwhile the conflict widened, fueled by political ambitions of the various powers. The evidence seems to show that WWI was the catalyst for the Second - and the ineffectual solutions of the Treaty of Versailles and the shortsighted failure of the Great Allies.
Swabia, for example, more or less equal in area to modern Switzerland, included 68 secular and 40 spiritual princes and also 32 imperial free cities.
Since both were members of the Union, they solicited, and received, promises of military aid from their colleagues; they also received, via Christian of Anhalt, similar promises from the kings of France and England.
Roman CatholicismLutheranism, and Calvinism.
On May 14,he formed the Evangelical, or ProtestantUnion, an association to last for 10 years, for self-defense. Hence many of the old conflicts remained. Ferdinand won after a five-year struggle. When Wilson tried to enforce the right of self-determination during the Paris Peace Conference, the other powers, France, Italy, and Great Britain, believed redrawing the map of Europe, with this idea in mind, was too difficult.
The only exceptions to this rule were the imperial free cities, where both Lutherans and Catholics were to enjoy freedom of worship, and the Catholic ecclesiastical states, where bishops and abbots who wished to become Lutherans were obliged to resign first.
The unsolved problems and the unwillingness of the Allies to address the issues of WWI made a second war unavoidable. It is true that there was economic distress among the people of Europe, which is usually an underlying cause of war. Sweden had control of the Baltic. The Religious Peace of Augsburg in had put an end to 30 years of sporadic confessional warfare in Germany between Catholics and Lutherans by creating a layered structure of legal securities for the people of the empire.
The principal battlefield for all these intermittent conflicts was the towns and principalities of Germany, which suffered severely. It was, in fact, how one major historian described it, "a new Thirty Years War.
However, the third weakness—the religious upheaval of the 16th century—changed all that: However, these major powers did redraw the boundaries the way they wished, helping to revive hostilities between some countries.
Yet some "ifs" enter in. However, no powerful country would have gone to the Hitler extreme. By the first decade of the 17th century, the Catholics were firmly entrenched south of the Danube and the Lutherans northeast of the Elbe; but the areas in between were a patchwork quilt of Calvinist, Lutheran, and Catholic, and in some places one could find all three.
This question of what exactly was the cause of WWII is a difficult one to answer. These were large polities, indeed, but they were weakened by three factors.
Even the decrees of the Council of Trentwhich animated Catholics elsewhere, failed to strengthen the position of the Roman church in Germany. This reduction in the Catholic threat was enough to produce reciprocal moves among the Protestants. But whereas the motive of diplomats before was fear of political domination, before it was fear of religious extirpation.
The rulers of the PalatinateNassauHesse-Kasseland Brandenburg all abandoned Lutheranism for the new confession, as did many lesser rulers and several towns. Similar paralysis was to be found in most other regions: The interwar years were just a break before the countries returned to complete what had not been finished.Treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War () and readjusted the religious and political affairs of Europe.
reason of state The principle that a nation should act on the basis of its long term interests and not merely to further the dynastic interests of its ruling family.
Thirty Years' War: Thirty Years’ War, (–48), in European history, a series of wars fought by various nations for various reasons, including religious, dynastic, territorial, and commercial rivalries.
Its destructive campaigns and battles occurred over most of Europe, and, when it ended with the Treaty of.
The Thirty Years' war, Nine Years' war, Seven Years' war, Napoleonic wars, World War I and World War II all involved very similar actors and for very similar reasons - the domination of central Europe.
When war rages between Protestant and Catholic kings and emperors, they claim that the people must take up arms to protect their faith as well.
As if the ongoing war was not enough, we must now grapple with these troublemakers in lands that should long since have accepted being ruled by the Habsburg dynasty.
He argues that wars should never be fought over religious beliefs and jokes that since the Thirty Years War was over religious principles, the soldiers should have fought for free. Leave the Middle East Be. Like Europe in the 17th century, the Middle East is undergoing a great upheaval, and the U.S.
should butt out.Download