Essays on galileo and the history and philosophy of science


The data produced by operations in turn provide the raw, empirical material to construct and test theories. Likewise, the Jews did not have a concept of Satan like that which exists in Christianity.

Through what Hans-Georg Gadamer called a fusion of horizons, both the social inquirer and the target of inquiry create a kind of higher understanding that transcends the viewpoints of both parties.

Fossils were actually excavated and put on display in temples in some cases. However, his daughter Maria Celeste relieved him of the burden after securing ecclesiastical permission to take it upon herself. Feminist critical theorists examine how patriarchal values, which they find are deeply imbedded in contemporary institutions, legal systems, and social values, serve to keep women subordinate.

An important category of these mechanisms has the effect of reducing cognitive dissonance — the uncomfortable psychological stress caused by holding two incompatible beliefs simultaneously.

They also agree with advocates of hermeneutics that interpretation is an inherently evaluative activity. The Aristotelian hierarchy of social place, political position, and theological gradation would vanish, to be replaced by the flatness and plainness of Euclidean space. This reasoning, however, was not the only one present in ancient Greece or presented in The Nature.

Purgatory contained lesser sinners still capable of salvation.

Galileo affair

Hence, there were no easy answers to inquiring Greek minds. Also, if there is no providence, how is it that the bodies of animals are arranged with such foresight, that the various members, being disposed in a wonderful manner, discharge their own offices individually?

In large part the Renaissance was a time of feverish intellectual activity devoted to the complete recovery of the ancient heritage.

History of science

This criticism says that interpretive social inquiry would appear to produce merely a collection of particularistic interpretive accounts of different cultures. The new physics—relativity, quantum mechanicsparticle physics—may have outraged common sense, but it enabled physicists to probe to the very limits of physical reality.

Not only did this implausibly relegate a slew of traditional philosophical questions to the category of meaningless, it also called into question the validity of employing unobservable theoretical entities, processes and forces in natural science theories.

The Philosophy of Social Science

Refutation of All Heresies now provides one of the fullest explanations of the Greek philosophies because it is one of the fullest accounts that remains of these teachings the originals were destroyed by the Christians. Social-level mechanisms involve the interaction of individuals. Usually, the intensity of the criticism was directly proportional to the theological significance of the problem involved.

For example, orthodox economists tend to depict certain features of capitalist economies, such as inequality and unemployment, as the enduring and inevitable if unwelcome results of the laws of market system.

According to this view, the social sciences are still awaiting their Galileo or Newton to provide an explanatory framework that will allow them to begin uncovering such laws.

According to this view we may speak of armies, trade cycles or riots in our explanations, but we must keep in mind that such entities and phenomena merely describe individuals and their interactions with each other.

In the Hebrew myth man is also given dominion over the plant and animal kingdoms. One savant went so far as to express pity for those who would follow him and his colleagues, for they, he thought, would have nothing more to do than to measure things to the next decimal place.

This is all good and well, but why should something written near the beginning of last century by a philosopher — however prominent — be of interest today?

For the Dreamtime does not merely lie in the distant past, the Dreamtime is the eternal Now. The Early Christian Fight Against Naturalism Understanding Christian belief requires understanding the historical development of those beliefs, and understanding the Christian impact on the world also requires understanding the historical rise of Christianity.

Paradoxically, to increase their take over the long run, fishermen must submit to limits on how much fish they can remove from the sea. Individuals and, indeed, entire societies may be dimly or even wholly unaware of such processes, and simply producing a thick description of a society may leave them obscure.

The imponderable fluids The Newtonian method of inferring laws from close observation of phenomena and then deducing forces from these laws was applied with great success to phenomena in which no ponderable matter figured.

In the beginning the earth was a bare plain. Ample evidence now suggests that the fantastic mythology of the ancient Greeks was heavily influenced by their observation of fossils. Astronomy then split into two parts: Despite the fact that this view seems "religious" today, Xenophanes was seen as a rationalist and materialist of his time.

Or is it that when we see anything such as a globe, or horologe, or numerous other things, moving by means of some kind of mechanism, we make no question of their being the work of intelligence, and yet are skeptical, although we see the heavens rushing on with marvelous speed, and bringing about with the utmost regularity the yearly recurring changes of the seasons by their revolution, ensuring thereby the most complete well-being and preservation of all things,—are we, I say, skeptical as to such phenomena being the result not merely of intelligence, but of an intelligence which is exalted and divine?

Greek medicine, Greek astronomy and astrology, and Greek mathematics, together with the great philosophical works of Plato and, particularly, Aristotle, were assimilated in Islam by the end of the 9th century. His observations of the satellites of Jupiter caused a revolution in astronomy: In chemistry, for example, the work of the medieval and early modern alchemists had yielded important new substances and processes, such as the mineral acids and distillation, but had obscured theory in almost impenetrable mystical argot.

Since these new stars displayed no detectable diurnal parallaxGalileo concluded that they were distant stars, and, therefore, disproved the Aristotelian belief in the immutability of the heavens.

America Quite independently of China, India, and the other civilizations of Europe and Asia, the Maya of Central America, building upon older culturescreated a complex society in which astronomy and astrology played important roles. Relying on the often questionable expertise of the economist turns public policy into merely a technical matter.

His development of the calculus of variations provided a powerful tool for dealing with highly complex problems.Understanding Evolution: History, Theory, Evidence, and Implications.

History of Philosophy

By - March 5, Updated - May 2, Index. Introduction; Origin Mythology; Mesopotamian. Galileo's Finger: The Ten Great Ideas of Science (): Peter Atkins: Books. Philosophy of Science. A few miles farther on, we came to a big, gravelly roadcut that looked like an ashfall, a mudflow, glacial till, and fresh oatmeal, imperfectly blended.

"I don't know what this glop is," [Kenneth Deffeyes] said, in final capitulation. History of Philosophy. The safest general characterization of the European philosophical tradition is that it consists of a series of footnotes to Plato.

History of science - The rise of modern science: Even as Dante was writing his great work, deep forces were threatening the unitary cosmos he celebrated.

The pace of technological innovation began to quicken. Particularly in Italy, the political demands of the time gave new importance to technology, and a new profession emerged, that of civil and military engineer.

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Essays on galileo and the history and philosophy of science
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